Time limit up to 5 minutes.
Name of the item to be supplied for Demi-Character to the Session Manager, when registering.
Must be choreographed for dancers as a whole, with any solos or pas de deux features worked within the content of group activity.
Entrants MAY be invited to perform at Dance of Champions - Event 500.
Note what 'props' are allowed - Item 13 under Dance Category Rules & Conditions.
General Rules & Conditions of Entry
General Rules & Conditions of Entry
All performers enter and participate in the Sydney Eisteddfod according to these General Rules & Conditions and any other rules and conditions specific to categories and individual events.
For the purposes of the following: ‘Eisteddfod’ is Sydney Eisteddfod, which is the organising body; ‘Official’ is a representative authorised by the Eisteddfod; ‘Event’ is a competition event identified by a program number; ‘Session’ is the time period in which one or more events are timetabled; ‘EST’ is the ‘Estimated Starting Time’ for an event within a session; ‘Category’ is a grouping of like events.
1. Events are open to all comers, subject to stipulated individual event conditions.
2. Entries must be received at the office of the Eisteddfod prior to the close of each event. Please refer to our FAQs. Entries must be completed correctly and accompanied by full fees including program cost or they will not be processed. Responsibility for correct entry rests with the entrant. The Eisteddfod cannot be responsible for entries lost in the mail, delivered incorrectly, or lost through failed electronic transmission. An ENTRY ACKNOWLEDGEMENT RECEIPT will be sent to the email address provided on the entry form, confirming the events entered and fees paid. Entrants must contact the Eisteddfod if this acknowledgement is not received within 10 days of lodgement. Entrants are advised to check the details carefully and notify the Eisteddfod immediately of any errors, including spelling of names, etc. Corrections cannot be made after final timetabling.
3. All Eisteddfod correspondence is via email. It is the entrant’s responsibility to ensure that Sydney Eisteddfod emails are not blocked by spam filters.
4. Entry fees are not refundable except when an event is cancelled. Entry fees cannot be transferred to another event should entrants change their mind after final timetabling.
5. Entries submitted after the commencement date of the Eisteddfod will be subject to an additional (late) fee. Late entries are only accepted without obligation, subject to final timetabling and capacity. Sydney Eisteddfod reserves the right to publish a list of ‘additional entries’ on its website in Entrant Corner with further extra names sent to venues.
6. A person or group is permitted to enter only ONCE in the SAME event, except where otherwise allowed. A school can enter more than one group in the same event provided individuals appear once only; non-playing and non-singing conductors excepted. School events can only be entered with bonafide students of the school. Schools which enter more than one group in an event must supply a list of names in each group when they register on the day of the performance, otherwise only the first group programmed will be eligible for a prize.
7. The names and birth dates of all entrants must be provided for solos, duos, trios and quartets.
8. No person may enter under a name other than their own LEGAL NAME. Entries are NOT TRANSFERABLE from one person to another in events where individual performers are named.
9. Prize cheques are automatically payable in the name of the published entrant or institution where supplied for group events. Cheques for groups not identified as a school or registered entity will be made out to the person named as submitting the entry. Cheques are posted to the address listed on the entrant’s Appearance Advice within 1 MONTH of the conclusion of the event. Entrants must ensure that address details are correct and that Sydney Eisteddfod is informed of any change. Please refer to Item 13 below. If a cheque is lost due to incorrect address, then a fee as indicated will be charged for a replacement.
10. Purchase of a Festival e-Program is compulsory for all entrants except where they come from the SAME FAMILY ADDRESS. Teachers submitting entries for individual students must include the cost of a Festival e-Program for each student, except where students share the same family address. It is recommended that groups from the same academy or school buy a Festival e-Program for each teacher/conductor/supervisor.
11. An Appearance Advice for each event entered will be emailed to the address supplied on the entry form after final timetabling is completed, listing event date, session time, venue and entrant number. This document should be brought to each event for identification purposes. This may be presented electronically on a phone or tablet if preferred. Please email firstname.lastname@example.org if this Advice hasn’t arrived by the end of the third week of April.
12. The Eisteddfod reserves the right to amend or refuse entry; to disqualify or deny participation; to alter or reduce the prizes as published; or to amend, cancel or combine any event, particularly should there be insufficient entries.
13. A fee of $30 will be charged if a cheque is dishonoured, a credit card is refused by the bank due to incorrect numbers listed, or a replacement prize cheque is requested.
14. Entrants must perform in events applicable to their age only, unless an event has no age specified. Age is determined as at 31 DECEMBER of the current Eisteddfod year. Event restrictions such as ‘16 and under’ mean that only those who are 16 or younger on 31 December of the current Eisteddfod year may take part.
Events titled ‘Any Age’ ARE OPEN TO EVERYONE and can be entered by persons of any age.
15. At events where an age limit is specified, every entrant (including group members) must have proof of age available on the spot if requested by an official (e.g. copy of birth certificate, etc) or risk disqualification. Random age checks may be carried out. A group member in contempt of age requirements will render the whole group liable to disqualification and possible bar from participation the following year.
16. Age limits do not apply to non-playing / non-singing conductors and private/official accompanists.
17. Entrants perform at their own risk. Entrants agree they are of good health and fitness and physically able to participate in an event. No liability will be accepted for any injury sustained whilst carrying out that performance.
18. Entrants are expected to be prepared for their event at the time of performance. Sydney Eisteddfod representatives and adjudicators are not permitted to advise, interpret or vary any rules, conditions, or any aspect of the conduct of the Festival, and the Eisteddfod will not accept responsibility for any effect arising from such unauthorised comment.
19. Entrants (or a representative) must register with the Session Manager (or as directed) AT LEAST 15 MINUTES before the start of the session or EST time (Estimated Starting Time) as advertised. Please allow time for transport delays or parking.
20. Registration can be only accepted prior to the Session Manager declaring the session open. Late registration, or those who miss their turn may perform at the end of the event or division for 'comments only' - not for a placing, and subject to time.
21. Entrants must appear in strict numerical order except in circumstances approved in advance by the Eisteddfod. Such requests must be submitted, with appropriate evidence within 10 working days before the event date via email to email@example.com. The order of performance in Finals is at the discretion of the Eisteddfod. All entrants must be ready to perform when called.
22. An Event or Division with an EST will never commence before this time but may commence after this time if the proceeding event or division runs overtime.
23. A copy of ‘Own Choice’ material must be provided for the adjudicator (unless the event states otherwise) and should be given to the Session Manager when registering on the day of performance. Only original published music (submitted at your own risk) should be collected immediately at the conclusion of the event. Photocopies will not be returned as per APRA/AMCOS policy. The onus of choosing the correct material rests with the entrant. Suitability, quality of choice and degree of difficulty are taken into consideration by the adjudicator.
24. Published or unpublished work is allowed unless a ‘Test’ is specified. No personal transposition of music is permitted except in folk song, junior vocal, contemporary singing, choral, instrumental solo and group events.
25. A different item is required for each event unless repeats are specifically allowed. Items performed in a Heat must be repeated in the Final unless otherwise stipulated. If it is specifically indicated that an item may be repeated, it may be repeated ONLY ONCE except when progressing to a Final. An entrant found repeating an item other than where allowed will be eligible for 'comments only' - not for a placing.
26. Groups performing in Finals must consist of the same individuals as in the Heats, without augmentation unless prior permission is sought and granted by the Eisteddfod.
27. Performances must be kept within specified time limits. If a performance goes under a stipulated minimum or over the maximum time, the entrant will not be eligible for a prize, and receives ‘comments only’. Except for announcement of the item title, time is determined from the first note, dance step, action or word spoken to the last note, dance step, action or word spoken. Bows during the music are timed. If separate times are noted for ‘A’ and ‘B’ test items, the clock will stop for each. If a ‘Total Performance Time’ is indicated, the clock will not stop between any selections or movements. The Eisteddfod timekeeper’s record is final.
28. Entrants may themselves announce only the title of their performance item/s. The Session Manager is not required to make this announcement.
29. Accompaniment in vocal and instrumental events must be acoustic piano except where otherwise stated, or the original has an obligato instrument. In ‘Test’ marked ‘unaccompanied’ only a keynote or chord can be given before the performance commences.
30. Official accompanists, if appointed, are not obliged to play poorly presented, difficult or illegible music at sight. Prior rehearsal is always advisable. Private accompanists do not need to purchase an admission ticket, provided they introduce themselves to the ticket seller, and enter the auditorium with the entrant and both register with the Session Manager.
31. Where recorded accompaniment is permitted, this must be on CD except where submission by emailing an MP3 file (not M4a or MP4 format) is specifically requested. After receiving revised advice from APRA/AMCOS, Sydney Eisteddfod will once again RETURN CDs TO ENTRANTS. These need to be collected with the reports at the conclusion of each event. CDs will only be kept for one week after the conclusion of an event, after which they will be securely destroyed and recycled.
32. Please ensure the CDs are burned properly, as per the guidelines given, and tested in a music system (not on a computer or car music player). In case of CD failure, subject to the venue, USB or phone can be used, as a backup. Do not use labels on CD as this may cause CD player failure (refer to separate ‘CD policy’).
33. Each CD or audio file must contain only ONE item (refer to separate ‘CD policy’).
34. No entrant may rehearse in competition venues during the period of the Eisteddfod except in official rehearsals arranged by the Eisteddfod.
35. No teacher, parent or designated supervisor (unless an accompanist or conductor) will be allowed on stage or in the wings at any time, except those registered in a supervisory capacity with groups. For further information please refer to Choir category rules & conditions No 21, Instrumental Group category rules & conditions 18, Speech & Drama category rules & conditions No 4 and Dance category rules & conditions No 4. These supervisors must be listed with the Session Manager when registering at the event. Supervisors must remain with their group at all times but are not permitted on stage unless performing with their group.
36. Prompting is not permitted, except by the adjudicator only in junior speech & drama events if deemed necessary.
37. In case of CD accompaniment failure during performance, the entrant should stop singing or dancing, leave the stage immediately and wait for instruction from the Session Manager. Once the sound technician has loaded the back-up CD, the entrant may recommence performance without penalty. In ‘live’ performances, any entrant who ‘breaks down during their performance’ or ‘suffers memory lapse’ and leaves the stage will receive ‘comments only’, unless they remain on stage and continue their performance within the time limit.
38. Standard of dress is as important as the performance. Personal presentation appropriate to a stage appearance may be taken into consideration. The use of explicit language and gestures is prohibited, and entrants should avoid items of an overtly sexual or undignified nature.
39. BAD BEHAVIOUR: A high standard of decorum is expected from all participants and patrons. Behaviour, which is contrary to the spirit of the event, especially if directed at Eisteddfod representatives, adjudicators or entrants, will result in the offender/s being asked to leave. Offending entrants or entrants associated with offenders will be disqualified and may incur future bar.
40. Any person or group found responsible for defacing or damaging a venue or equipment will be disqualified and the Eisteddfod may take steps to recover from them any costs of repair. Supervisors of groups must remain with their groups at all times and will be held accountable for the actions of their groups.
41. The adjudicator/s' decision in accordance with the rules is final.
42. If fewer than five entrants register on the day of performance, or if a satisfactory standard is not achieved, the decision to award prizes will be at the discretion of the adjudicator. Prizes cannot be divided and none extra to those listed in the event program can be awarded (e.g. tied positions are not permissible). Should the Eisteddfod or the adjudicator decide not to award a prize, such decision shall be final and binding.
43. Any person who is related to, or been taught or coached privately by an appointed adjudicator during the six months preceding the opening date of the Eisteddfod is barred from participation under that adjudicator.
44. Communication with an adjudicator is strictly prohibited. If it is established that an entrant or person associated with an entrant has made personal contact with the adjudicator before or during a session that entrant will be disqualified.
45. A substitute adjudicator may be used for a listed adjudicator. Any event may be divided for program purposes and any event time or date may be altered if necessary.
46. An adjudication report, if written, will be available free of charge to the entrant or in the case of groups, the supervisor. Reports may be posted if a stamped self-addressed envelope, with the event and entrant numbers clearly identified, is supplied to the Eisteddfod to an address matching our records.
47. Any protest on the basis of age or ‘vocals on CD’ will be determined on the spot by the Session Manager by inspecting proof of age or checking the submitted recording. Please refer to Item 48 below.
48. Any protest of a technical nature other than in Item 47 must be referred to the Eisteddfod for settlement and its decision accepted without further question. Such protests must be in writing accompanied by a deposit of $50 and lodged at the registered office of the Eisteddfod no later than 4pm on the first working day after the event affected. If the protest is upheld the deposit will be refunded. Please refer to Item 49 below.
49. A protest can only be lodged by an entrant, teacher or parent affected in solo events or in the case of groups, by the group’s conductor or representative as named on the entry form for the event or by the principal of a school or academy.
50. Legal requirements prohibit private use of cameras or recording devices at our venues and events. Laptops, iPads, tablets, pagers, alarms, personal headsets and all other electronic devices must be switched off in competition venues.
51. The Eisteddfod will not be liable for personal items lost or stolen. Valuables should not be brought into competition venues and any school bags, handbags, instruments or other items should be under the supervision of someone nominated by the entrant at all times. Lost property will be held by the Eisteddfod office or venue for two months only.
52. The Eisteddfod will not be liable for any copyright infringement relating to the submission of photocopies. Entrants should be aware of the APRA/AMCOS rules of copyright.
53. Any rights that should be obtained in respect of recorded music for performance are the responsibility of the performer. The Eisteddfod holds a licence issued by APRA/AMCOS.
54. The Eisteddfod reserves the right to record, film, broadcast, telecast, videotape or photograph any entrant, item or event in the Eisteddfod without notification and any such photograph, recording or broadcast may be used at the Eisteddfod’s discretion for publicity or promotional purposes, but shall not necessarily constitute an endorsement of any participants, and no remuneration or compensation whatsoever shall be attributable to any participants so featured.
55. The Eisteddfod, at its sole discretion, may promote or publicise the profile of any entrant and their participation and publish names and suburbs in competition results, including photos via electronic and printed media at its discretion.
56. Personal details provided by an entrant on the entry form are for the Eisteddfod identification use only and are not released to third parties except at the Eisteddfod’s discretion after consultation with the entrant to known organisations when an opportunity may be beneficial to an entrant.
57. Failure to comply with any of the foregoing rules and conditions may cause withholding of prizes, disqualification, and/or a future bar. The decision of the Eisteddfod in all questions or disputes arising out of or not provided for by these rules and regulations will be final. All entries are received according to this condition and in the spirit of friendly competition upon which the Eisteddfod is based, and no dispute shall become the subject of any appeal at law.
58. TICKET SALES: Tickets are non-refundable. All patrons (including children) must hold a valid ticket for the ‘Principal Dates’. At general sessions, all children 4 years and over will be required to have a valid ticket.
59. TRAVEL ASSISTANCE: The Sydney Eisteddfod Travel Fund provides subsidies for travel by young people from marginal and regional New South Wales and interstate to give them the opportunity to perform in Sydney Eisteddfod. Details can be found HERE.
You may wish to refer to our FAQs for other useful information.
Dance Category Rules & Conditions
Dance Category Rules & Conditions
The following rules and conditions are specific to the DANCE category. Please ensure you also read the General Rules & Conditions of Entry.
1. Performances are for soloists unless an event indicates otherwise.
2. Registration and performance rules are strictly enforced. Please refer to the General Rules & Conditions of Entry Items 17 to 28.
3. COMPULSORY FESTIVAL e-PROGRAM: Purchase of an Festival e-Program is compulsory for all entrants. Teachers submitting entries for individual students MUST PURCHASE a Festival e-Program for each soloist, except where they share the same family address. As the online entry form only allows for one compulsory Festival e-Program on checkout, teachers who enter multiple students on the SAME online entry form are requested to email: firstname.lastname@example.org to complete their compulsory Festival e-Program purchase requirements.
4. TEACHER’S PASS:
a) SOLOS/DUOS/TRIOS: Teachers who have submitted 10 or more students in SOLO events OR 20 or more students if including ‘Duo/Trio’ events will be eligible for ONE Festival Pass. To claim, they should email: email@example.com no later than Tuesday 1 May 2018 giving student names and event number details. Please allow 10 working days to receive this Pass in the mail. An administrative charge of $10 needs to be paid, so please be sure to make arrangements for this payment at the same time as when applying.
b) GROUPS (4-9, 5-30 & 10-30 dancers): One Free Admission ticket PER GROUP will be issued by the Session Manager when regigsteringand this is given to the person who submits the backing CD. Normal admission charges apply to all other helpers/supervisors/choreographers with the group should they wish to see the performance.
5. Time limits allow for the presentation of ONE ITEM except in scholarships and championships as indicated. Limits are strictly monitored and entrants exceeding them will be eligible for ‘comments only’ - not for a placing.
6. A different item is required for each event unless repeats are specifically allowed. Items performed in a Heat must be repeated in the Final unless otherwise stipulated.
7. If it is specifically indicated that an item may be repeated, it may be repeated ONLY ONCE except when progressing to a Final. An entrant found repeating an item other than where allowed will be eligible for ‘comments only’ - not for a placing.
8. Costumes for Classical Solos:
- 14 & Over Solo Classical Dance Events: Traditional Classical costume which suits the repertoire e.g. Giselle dress Act 1, Kitri dress Act 1 or Juliet style dress relating to those variations either short or long options (except in Event 400: The Sydney Eisteddfod Ballet Scholarship)- unless otherwise stipulated. Please see each event condition.
- 13 & Under Solo Classical Dance Events: Short tutu must be worn by girls in all solo classical dances.
9. TARKETT: No tarkett floor provided for tap. Tarkett may also not be provided for Song & Dance and Musical Theatre. For all other events, including School Dance Events, tarkett will be provided.Where tarkett is provided no tap shoes or footwear with metal will be allowed.
10. FINALS: In solo events with 35 or more entries, ‘Final if required’ will be scheduled as close to the heats as possible. If fewer than 35 actually perform, or if the adjudicator decides the final will not be required, the result will be announced. Finalists to repeat their item/s from the heats in the same costume, unless otherwise indicated.
11. There is no backstage crossover at the Science Theatre, Shore School or at the Concert Hall of the Sydney Opera House and, in the interests of safety, dance choreography must allow (once dancers are positioned either side) for entry and exit from the same side. Under-stage access at the Science Theatre and Shore School and behind-stage at the Concert Hall of the Sydney Opera House is only to be used at the start of the performance. Dancers may be penalised if found running under-stage or behind the stage to gain access to the other side during performance at any of the venues.
a) Choreography from the traditional/professional classical repertoire (or modifications to the choreography) not to be used except in Event 400: The Sydney Eisteddfod Ballet Scholarship.
b) RECORDED BACKING TRACK: Please ensure the CDs are burned properly and clearly marked with Entrant Number and Event No, as per the guidelines given, and tested in a music system (not on a computer or Car music player). In case of CD failure, subject to the venue, USB or phone can be used, as a backup. Do not use labels on CD as this may cause CD player failure. See Entrant Corner for CD Policy.
c) The CD must be handed to the Session Manager when registering at least 15 minutes before the start of the session or event ‘EST’ time.
d) After receiving revised advice from APRA/AMCOS, Sydney Eisteddfod will once again RETURN CDs TO ENTRANTS. These need to be collected with the reports at the conclusion of each event. CDs will only be kept for one week after the conclusion of an event, after which they will be securely destroyed & recycled.
e) No person, unless authorised, may sit with the sound operator.
f) Vocals optional on backing CD unless otherwise excluded (e.g. Song & Dance, etc).
13. SCENERY, PROPS & COSTUMES: Entrants will be penalised with marks deducted, if any of the following are not adhered to:
a) Entrants, particularly in the Demi-Character events, are requested to note that NO FREE-STANDING SCENERY ALLOWED. Simple hand-held props (basket, scarf, doll, flowers, etc) are permitted only if actually used in the routine. Each entrant is responsible for placing and removing their items on stage. Parents or teachers are not allowed to assist with this set-up.
b) Props may not be assembled on site. Props must be easily carried backstage by the entrant themselves WITHOUT ANY ASSISTANCE.
c) Performers must not use fire, sharp or sharp-edged implements, live animals or props of polystyrene components on stage at any time.
d) Props of a height of 1 metre or more that will be performed on in any manner (e.g. for standing, walking, etc) MUST include a hand-rail. This is a safety and insurance requirement and CANNOT be waived. All such props must not exceed a height of 1.7 metres.
e) Props on wheels or those mobile during the performance may not be permitted if their use is deemed dangerous. NOTE: The Sydney Opera House has strict regulations that override any safety-related decisions at other venues.
f) Any electronic props being used as part of the routine have to be cleared with Sydney Eisteddfod due to venue security reasons at least two weeks in advance of the performance date. NOTE: The Sydney Opera House has strict regulations that override any safety-related decisions at other venues.
g) There must be no debris, residue or substance from an entrant’s performance or costume requiring the stage to be cleaned and causing delay to the session. Penalty applies. No liquids, soap bubbles or excessive body talc should be used and the surface of the stage must not be coated.
h) ROSIN IS NOT TO BE USED in any part of the venue, dressing room or stage area.
14. The use of house curtains is not allowed unless authorised by Sydney Eisteddfod Officials in special cases.
15. PROPRIETY: Make-up, costumes and choreography should be suitable to the age of the dancers and sexually explicit actions avoided.
16. DRESSING ROOM: Dressing Room facilities are very limited at the Science Theatre and at the Sydney Opera House and are shared. Entrants are therefore requested to come as pre-prepared as possible - especially make-up. Your co-operation is much appreciated.
a) Demi-Character: Must be based on classical technique and have a strong story line or characterisation clearly transmitting an emotion. Title only (not a synopsis) MUST BE PROVIDED when registering. Please be aware of what are considered suitable ‘props’. See item 13 above.
b) Tap: Tap music accompaniment can include vocals. Recorded tap routines are not allowed. Stage will be mic’d for all tap events.
c) Jazz: This may include lyrical jazz and musical theatre. Choreographers should be aware of jazz techniques. Acrobatic actions are performed at own risk. Selection of music should be suited to age of dancer.
d) Song & Dance: No microphones provided. Dance tarkett will NOT be provided. May include pop/rock/jazz/tap. Selection of song should be suited to age of dancer. CD accompaniment must be music only without any vocals.
e) Musical Theatre: Title only (not a synopsis) MUST BE PROVIDED when registering. Dance tarkett will NOT be provided.
18. No parents OR teachers allowed backstage except for ONE nominated supervisor for group events.
19. SCHOOL DANCE GROUPS: Events 520-528
A person is permitted to perform only ONCE in an event. No tap shoes allowed or footwear with metal in events 520-528. Cross elevation of advanced juniors is allowed. These events are restricted to Infant, Primary & Secondary Schools only. A group may represent one school or two schools combined. Participants must be bonafide students of either school. A group comprising students from three or more schools is not allowed. However, other combinations may be allowed, especially for regional and certain interstate schools, at the discretion of Sydney Eisteddfod. Different combinations need to make written application to Sydney Eisteddfod for special consideration and the decision of the Eisteddfod will be final. For equitable adjudication, professional dance academies and specialist performing arts schools with accreditation are excluded. Pointe work is not compulsory. Schools may also enter any of the other dance events.
Only ONE TRACK RELEVANT to the event should be on EACH CD. Sydney Eisteddfod takes no responsibility for CD error.
CDs should be clearly labeled with EVENT number & ENTRANT number using an appropriate pen. These details must be clearly visible through its protective case. Do NOT use labels on CDs as this may cause CD failure.
Note Specific to Dance Events:
- Please write either 'ON stage' or 'OFF stage' on the CD to indicate when the CD should be started: i.e. 'ON stage' = music commences once performers are in position on stage; 'OFF stage' = the CD should start once the entrant is announced but before they enter the stage.
- For championship events, clearly label the items on both the CDs e.g. Classical CD1, Lyrical CD 2.
If the CD is prepared on a home computer, ensure it plays through a domestic audio system (standard CD player). Please do not use CD-RW (Re-writeable), these are meant for computers and are sometimes not recognized in sensitive audio equipment. Please make sure that the music is in a MP3 or WAV Format (NOT M4A or MP4) and burnt as an Audio CD.
Recommended Software: iTunes is available for both MAC & PC computers, free of charge. You can convert your music into MP3 format and burn as an Audio CD.
CDs will be returned. These need to be collected with the reports at the conclusion of each event. CDs will only be kept for one week after the conclusion of an event after which they will be securely destroyed and recycled.
A second backup copy should be retained by the entrant and will only be called for should the first CD fail. Please refer to General Rules & Conditions 37 for more details. In case the backup CD does not work, subject to the venue, USB or phone can be used, as a backup.
Events close progressively as they become fully subscribed.
General Session Tickets
Adult $20, Concession $16
General Session tickets are sold at the venue prior to the session. General Session seating is unreserved. Correct money for our Volunteer ticket sellers is appreciated. Eftpos facilities now available. Tickets are available for purchase from 45 minutes prior to the session.